Foundations™ Learning Center

Foundations Learning Center

Below is a list of all the blog posts you are posting that your
visitors might be interested in...

Components of a Standard Belt Conveyor

Although each belt conveyor is somewhat different, it shares many common components. A conveyor consists of a continuous rubber belt stretched between terminal pulleys. One end is the tail. This is usually where the loading of the cargo takes place, but loading may take place anywhere along the length of the conveyor, and conveyors with multiple load zones are relatively common. The other end of the conveyor is called the head. The cargo is usually discharged at the head, but with the use of plows or trippers, the load may discharge anywhere along the conveyor’s length.

A belt conveyor is a relatively simple piece of equipment.

The belt is supported along the top (carrying) side with flat or troughing rollers called idlers. Troughing rollers form the belt into a U-shape that increases the cargo capacity of the conveyor. On the bottom (return) side of the conveyor, where the belt returns to the loading point, the belt is supported with return idlers. The rolling components are mounted in frames and supported by a steel structure called the stringers. In some applications, such as underground or overland conveyors, the rolling components of the conveyor are mounted on suspended wire ropes.

Usually electrically powered, conveyors’ drive motors are most often located to turn the conveyor’s head pulley. The motor(s) can be located at any point along the conveyor. Multiple motors are often used on long or heavily-loaded conveyors.

A tensioning device, called a take-up, is used to make sure that the belt remains tight against the drive pulley to maintain the required tension in the belt to move the belt and cargo. Most common is an automatic tensioning device referred to as a gravity take-up, which uses a counterweight to create tension in the belt. The gravity take-up is often installed near the drive pulley on the return side of the belt. Bend pulleys are used to direct the belt into the take-up pulley, which is attached to the counterweight of the gravity take-up.

Another type of pulley, called a snub pulley, is often placed immediately after the head pulley on the return side of the belt to increase the contact of the belt with this pulley, allowing a smaller drive pulley to transmit the required tension to the belt.

The cargo is usually loaded near the tail end in an area referred to as the loading zone. The components of the loading zone will likely consist of a loading chute, tail pulley, idlers, belt-support systems, skirtboards, wear liners, dust seals, entry seals, and exit seals.

A conveyor’s head, or discharge, end will usually consist of the head pulley, a discharge chute along with a belt-cleaning system, a dribble chute, and other equipment to monitor and maintain flow.

A transfer point is where the bulk material moves from on piece of equipment to another. A transfer point can be either a loading or discharge zone, or in the case where one conveyor is feeding another, one transfer point can contain both the loading or discharge zones. However, a transfer point could also be where a belt feeds another bulk-materials handling or processing system or where the belt receives cargo from another bulk-materials handling or processing system. These systems might be storage vessels of any type; cargo carriers such as trucks, railcars, barges, or ships; or other pieces of process equipment.

Depending on the conveyed material, a variety of other ancillary equipment may also be installed along the run of the conveyor or in the transfer point at the other end.

Topics: Basics of Belt Conveyor Systems

Leave Comment