The central method of handling dust collection from the total air for a conveyor system would be to connect all the individual collection points by means of ducting to a single dust collector that is installed at a single, remote location. This collector contains fans, filters, and a collection hopper. The filtration system would handle all the dust extracted from the entire conveying system, collecting it for disposal, or feeding it back onto the conveyor or into the process at a convenient point.
Central systems are particularly suitable when the process has all dust-generating points operating at one time, and/or it is desirable to process all dust at one site. It is also useful when there is limited space near the conveyors for dust collection and processing equipment or where the explosion risk requires the dust collector to be positioned at a safe distance. In some processes, it is better to remove fine particles from the main material flow. Central dust collectors may be preferred when handling hot dust, because its temperature may be reduced as the dust travels to the central collector or by adding "fresh air" into the flow.
The drawbacks of the central dust collection system are its requirements for more complex engineering and lengthy systems of ducting. As all dust gathering points (pickups) must operate at once, the central method may present higher operating costs. The need to service any one component requires that the entire system be shut down. The fan motor needed for a central collector could be much larger, due to the increase in static pressure and the losses from ductwork as the system grows. The collected dust will require an additional materials handling system, which if not properly sized and operated can, in turn, create its own dust problem.